The Differences Between Nearsightedness and Farsightedness

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Like astigmatism, nearsightedness and farsightedness are both problems in how our eyes focus the light on the retina. Doctors call them refractive conditions that affect how the light enters the eyes will cause us to see the blurred objects in our surroundings. However, there is a difference in how we perceive objects at certain distances.

Nearsightedness or Myopia

Nearsightedness, also called myopia or shortsightedness, is a condition characterized by the ability to see objects at a closer proximity more clearly than objects that are placed further. To a person with myopia, the nearer objects appear normal because the eyeball is elongated, causing the light to form at the front of the retina instead of on it. Reading books will pose no problems, but you will have a difficult time making out what’s written on a billboard. Myopia also causes night blindness, meaning, you’ll find it more difficult to see objects in minimal lighting.

The condition may be caused by malformations in the eyes, aging, cataracts, or as a side effect of some drugs. Like all refractive problems, myopia is diagnosed by an ophthalmologist through extensive eye examinations. An individual is usually advised to wear corrective lenses to improve the vision.

Farsightedness or Hyperopia

Farsightedness, also called hyperopia or hypermetropia, is the opposite of myopia, which is characterized by the ability to see objects at a distance more clearly than those that are closer to you. The light coming through the eyes forms behind the retina instead of on it and is often caused by the shortness of the eyeballs, a flat cornea or the irregular curvature of the lens. These eye problems may be inherited or a consequence of injuries, migraine attacks, and even sinus infection.

Hyperopia is diagnosed by an ophthalmologist through an extensive eye exam and the individual may be advised to wear corrective lenses to improve vision. Some types of nearsightedness also need surgery, such as the removal of a layer of the cornea to correct the problem.


Astigmatism is also a refractive error that prevents the eyes from focusing the light into the retina, causing multiple focal points. The result is a blurred vision regardless of the distance of the object. It could be a combination of myopia and hyperopia in some individuals.

The most common methods in testing a person’s vision is with a Snellen Test Chart, retinoscopy, and automated computerized tools. Besides prescription corrective lenses, the individual might also want to consider procedures designed to correct the curvature of the retina such as, radial keratotomy, automated lamellar keratectomy, excimer laser photo refractive keratectomy, and LASIK.

Everything You Need to Know About Sunburn

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Summer bodies and bronze tans often go together, but even a slight tan can put you at risk of a bad sunburn. While sunlight has definite health benefits for you, getting a sunburn can be really bad for many reasons. Aside from making you look much older, it even puts you at a higher risk of developing skin cancer.

Sunburn: What You Need to Know

Aside from the redness and blisters that come after a long day under the sun, there’s a little more about sunburns that you need to know about, like the following:

  • Sunburn isn’t always visible. The damage from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays go deeper than just your skin. It can also alter your DNA and add to the risk of melanomas in the future. 
  • Skin tones affect sunburn. Everyone’s skin can be affected by the sun. Fair skin is more sensitive to UV radiation while more pigmented skin tones are significantly less sensitive to UV. 
  • Clothes aren’t foolproof against a nasty sunburn. Even thick clothes can only provide a limited amount of protection against the sun’s UV radiation, so it’s always best to apply sunscreen when going outdoors during the day.

Treating a Sunburn

If you have a nasty case of sunburn after spending a long time out in the sun, there are a few remedies that will ease the pain:

  • Gels or creams – Gels or creams containing menthol, camphor, or aloe can alleviate the pain when applied gently to the sunburnt area of your skin.
  • Compresses – Applying cold compresses or cool water on the sunburnt areas of your skin is another way to soothe the burn.
  • Water – Drinking plenty of fluids and staying hydrated helps prevent the skin from drying out.

There are also a few steps you ccan take to prevent sunburn, such as the following:

  • Wearing the right clothes
  • Staying in the shade when it gets too hot
  • Using sunscreen

How Sunscreen Really Works

It’s always a good idea to carry around sunscreen and apply it before getting out into the sun for long periods.

This is because sunscreen contains different inorganic active ingredients like zinc oxide, which scatter ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as well as organic ingredients like oxybenzone, which absorb UV radiation and dissipate it in the air as excess heat.

There are two different types of sunscreen you can choose from:

  • Physical sunscreen – Also known as sunblock, physical sunscreen sits directly on the skin and deflects UV rays from your skin immediately after being applied.
  • Chemical sunscreen – This type of sunscreen is absorbed by your skin and takes effect between twenty and thirty minutes after application. It filters and absorbs a small part of the sun’s UV rays.

Cancer and Travel Precautions

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While you are in this journey, you will eventually come across a reason to travel—whether it’s for treatment, work or just for leisure. The good news is that many breast cancer patients in Singapore are able to travel safely and comfortably. As long as proper precaution is observed, your oncology team will likely approve your overseas travel. Here are the points to consider (with your doctor’s approval) when planning to go on a trip.


1. Choose the right companion. The right companion should make travelling easy for you. Bring someone who knows you and your needs well—and preferably knows the destination, too. In case of emergency, you know you have someone who can take care of you and bring you to the nearest cancer center if necessary.

2. Pick your destination wisely. When travelling for a vacation, pick a place where you know you’ll have easy access to medical care. In Singapore, you’ll find good cancer centers, complete with the best facilities, all around the city. But not all countries can provide that. In some places, it can be hard to get proper when you need it, and chances of aggravating your condition are high.

3. Know your body’s limitations. Cancer and chemotherapy can make you feel easily tired, nauseated, weak and less likely to tolerate physical activities. As much as you want to explore a place you have never been before, your body can only do very limited activities.

Before going somewhere far away from home, keep these three important points in mind to ensure your safety. After which, heed the following advices for before, during and after your travel.


• Five to six weeks before your departure date, set an appointment with your specialist. You may be required to undergo some tests and examinations with a Harley oncologist to check for cancer in Singapore to check how fit your immune system and organs are or be provided with preventive medications and vaccines.

• Consider long-term anti-biotic. If you’re visiting a developing country, a long-term anti-biotic therapy will protect you against illnesses like diarrhea, which is extremely dangerous for your condition.

• Bring necessary documents. Bring copies of your most lab tests of your breast cancer in case they are needed. This prevents waiting for hours trying to get your papers delivered to where you are. A medical letter from your oncologist describing your treatment plan and diagnosis will also be helpful in the event of an emergency.

• Bring sufficient supplies of medications. Carry all your medications with you. If possible, bring extras in case of delays. Do not transfer them in medicine containers to avoid custom or border problems. If you are taking medications with narcotics, like codeine, secure a letter of medical explanation from your specialist.

• List down all your medications. Include the dosages and the time of the day when you need to take them. Also, keep a list of your drug allergies and always have it in your wallet or give it to your travel companion.

• Learn to speak local terms of important words. Learn to speak certain words like ‘doctor,’ ‘emergency’ and ‘cancer’ in local dialect. This will expedite assistance in case of emergency.


• Study your insurance. Some insurance do not cover medical costs outside Singapore. If your health insurance is one of those, consider securing an overseas insurance.


• If travelling by plane, you are at higher risk of developing blood clots due to the presence of cancer cells in your blood. To increase blood circulation and prevent blood clot, walk around in the plane at least once every hour. Ask your oncologist if you need to take blood thinner before the flight. If you are anemic because of your condition, get an approval from your specialist before flying or going to high-altitude locations.

• If you feel sick, get assistance right away. There is always someone in the plane who will be able to help you or at least arrange something for medical help. The airline or your hotel should be able to assist you to get the necessary medical care as well.

• Eat healthily. It can be tricky to have well-balanced meals when travelling, especially if you’re in a place where the food is distasteful for you. Bring along doctor-approved meal-replacement snacks and drinks, like crackers, peanut-butter, energy bars and chocolates, for back-up.

• Avoid stressing your immune system. Minimize chances of injury and infection by drinking only bottled water and eating well- and freshly-cooked food at reputable restaurants and establishments. Likewise, be careful not to hurt yourself and refrain from activities that can possible cause injuries.


• See your oncologist right away. Before even going away, set an appointment with your doctor for when you return from your trip. The appointment will allow your doctor evaluate your condition and make-up for any treatment sessions you possibly missed.

• Listen to your body. If you experience any unusual symptoms—either upon return or months after the trip (as some side effects incubate for months), go to a cancer center immediately.

Above all, wherever you choose to go, focus on relaxing and having fun. After all, the purpose of the trip is to get away and return home feeling refreshed. Travelling can be tiring even in the best of health, so make sure to always get enough rest. Do not be pressured to make the most of your time off, and consider including pure relaxation in your list of activities.


How to Reduce Bloating

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We feel bloated because of constipation, too much swallowed air, the food and drinks that we consume every day and even due to excess wind absorbed by the body. With that, we seldom feel that our tummies are stretched out and swollen. There are a number of people who experience bloating all the time. In order to address that concern, here are ways on how to reduce bloating:


  1. Make exercising a daily habit. Be responsible and take care of your body. Do your sit-ups and hit the gym if you must. One way to reduce bloating is to sweat it out and to tone your muscles especially in the stomach area. You can schedule a routine exercise that you could do or you can sign up in extreme circuit exercises.


  1. Limit your gassy foods intake. Don’t eat too much gassy foods. Some examples of these are broccoli, beans, chewing gum, and many more. Carbonated drinks and beer are also major causes since they release carbon dioxide which is not too good for your tummy. If you do not want gas to build up in your stomach and intestines, limit consuming these types of foods.


  1. Sugar-free snacks should be avoided. Eat fewer sugar-free snacks. These contain artificial sweeteners that contribute to gastrointestinal distress. To circumvent bloating and diarrhea, constrain yourself in eating these snacks. Instead, treat yourself with healthy snacks like fruits but avoid apples, pears and peaches.


  1. Avoid smoking. Aside from the fact that smoking is bad for your health, it is also one of the main causes of bloating. Why? It is because when you smoke, you swallow air more than usual. Swallowing air is a no-no and could cause your stomach feel stuffed.


  1. Practice smart-eating. Experts suggest that instead of eating three meals a day, you can resort into eating five to six small meal portions. Through this, your intestines and stomach can adjust with the food intake and would give them enough time to digest and not be clogged. Eat some cucumbers, papayas and banana to help you out with digestion.


  1. Keep yourself hydrated. Water intake is very important to help your body digest all the food you eat. You might get a few more trips to the bathroom but hey that’s way better than feeling stressed out and bloated every day. Water is not expensive. You can even just drink from the tap as long as you know the source is clean.


Tell-tale Signs That You Work Too Much

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Singaporeans are known to be hard working people. This is the reason why the country is very progressive and productive. For a small country with limited resources, it is maximizing its greatest asset which is its people. The good thing here is that the government is continuously empowering business owners for the wellbeing of their employees.


You know that business culture is competitive these days. If you are slow, you will surely be left out. It is therefore important for you to keep up. There is nothing wrong if you work hard but you have to determine when it is enough because it has an impact on your life as a whole from your health to relationships. You have to think that work can easily consume you so you need to draw the line.

Here are tell-tale signs that you are giving too much of yourself to your work:

If free time becomes alien

You are so involved with your work that you have little time available to yourself let alone the family. The company will think that you are dedicated but for the people around you, that is abuse and too much. Do not let your job totally consume you to the extent that you have no time for other things.


This is easy to determine. If you cannot remember the day you met up with family or friends or went to shopping, you are definitely over worked. It is time that you get a life.

Carrying the load alone

You have to remember that you are not Atlas – carrying the whole world alone. You cannot do everything alone so it is imperative that you ask for help. You may be a perfectionist and you want to do things alone but you have to spare yourself from the burden sometimes.

Aspirations are related to your current job

It is admirable that you have aspirations because it will keep you driven and fuelled. However, you should carefully observe what these aspirations are. Is it related to your current job or not? You have to balance it in such a way that it can create harmony to your colleagues, friends, family and loved ones.

If you always talk about work

It is okay to talk about your job from time to time but what is not acceptable is to talk about it all the time as if there is nothing going on with your life. Even if you are with colleagues, you should not talk about it all the time if you want to have fun. This is a giveaway. If you talk about your work all the time, then it is a tell-tale sign that you give too much of yourself to your work.


Kidney Damage Symptoms That You Should Watch Out

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Kidney damage is not new here in Singapore. Many people suffer from this and what is disturbing is that it could be less serious if the patient noticed the symptoms at the onset. It is important that you identify the signs at the onset so you can effectively describe it to the doctor. Remember that early detection can be the difference between life and death.

Do not underestimate kidneys. Kidneys are in fact one of the most important organs in the body. Doctors appreciate people who come early. If the signs are detected early, there is a big possibility of a successful treatment. You have to know that warning signs start to appear long before the development of the disease. This is the reason why detection for a successful treatment is imperative.

Do not let the kidneys get damaged because it can threaten your life at the end of the day. You have to keep your body healthy and strong. Here are the symptoms that you should watch out:

  • Low back pain: Low back pain signifies kidney damage. If you experience low back pain and is usually accompanied by aching urination, you should go to the doctor immediately. That is not normal. Do not risk it by simply ignoring it. Many people simply ignore it because the pain slowly eases after waking up in the middle of the night.


  • Skin diseases: Some people see skin disease and immediately consult their dermatologist. That is good but the wisest thing to do is meet with your physician. If you are suffering from beyond-normal itching and dryness of the skin, you have to consult your doctor right away. Kidneys are capable of eliminating toxins. If the toxins are accumulated in the blood, it will make your skin dry and irritated.


  • Body swelling: No matter how hard you convince yourself that your swelling is normal, the body knows if there is something wrong with it. If kidneys do not remove the excess fluid in your body, it will lead to swelling of hands, feet, face, legs and ankles. This is surely a sign that wastes inside the body are starting to accumulate.


  • Color of the urine: Watch out for your urine too. When the kidney is damaged, the color of your urine will change. If the color is beyond normal, you should be concerned. It does not end there, if you notice that your urine become concentrated and foamy, it is time that you seek the help of doctors immediately. Do not delay it.


Preparing for Your First Cardiologist Visit

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Finding a heart doctor who you’d feel comfortable with is crucial – a cardiologist Singapore with the knowledge, skills and technology who’ll help you in managing your heart condition. But aside from finding a skilled heart specialist, doing some homework and preparations before attending your appointment is also essential to ensure that you get the best heart healthcare there is. To help you with that, here are seven things that you should do before going to the office of your heart doctor.


1. Bring a List of Your Medicines

When visiting your heart specialist, make sure that you bring along the list of your current medications complete with their dose, names and frequency. Bringing this list along is crucial for the current state of your heart health, how your doctor decides to treat you – plus, it’s almost always requires when you’re filling out registration forms.

2. Note Your Healthcare Providers

Just like your medicines, ensure that you also list down all your previous healthcare providers, complete with their name, address and phone number to help your Singapore cardiologist in communicating with them in case he or she may need your previous lab or test results from your previous physicians, or if your current doctor needs to consult them about your past diagnoses and treatments.

3. Make a Health History

Other than your medicines, it’s also important that you create your health history. List down the surgical procedures, major tests, and prior or ongoing illnesses that you’ve been diagnosed with within the last year. Knowing this will give your heart doctor the clues he or she needs to give you the right diagnosis when you check your heart with a cardiologist from Harley in Singapore and propose the best course of treatment for your heart condition.

4. Compile Your Family Health History

Apart from the list of your medicines and health history, it’s also important that you compile your family’s health history. The health history of your close blood relatives are the most important, especially if they’ve been diagnosed with a heart disease, diabetes, aneurysm, high cholesterol, or high blood pressure levels. By compiling this and bringing it to your appointment, your Singapore heart doctor will be able to figure out your risk of developing the same illness, as well as the possible preventive measures that you can take to reduce that risk.


5. Research Your Heart Health Condition

Having a better understanding of your heart condition beforehand allows you to have meaningful discussion with your medical doctor. So do research about your condition, as well as other important information about your condition prior to your visit. Remember, doctors love it when their patients come to their office ready and with knowledge of his or her heart condition.

6. Organize All Your Heart Healthcare Information

One good of doing it is to create an organized folder of all your heart health records. With this, you can ensure that your visit to your heart doctor will run smoothly. Also, make sure that you keep all your heart health records accurate and up to date. Remember, you’re still the most reliable keeper of your heart and overall health records.

7. List Down Your Questions and Concerns

Getting side tracked during your cardiologist Singapore visit is quite easy, so make sure that you write all of your concerns and questions about your heart health beforehand. Once you’re done listing it down, choose three to four questions or concerns that you really want to consult with your heart doctor. To make your question listing easier for you, here are some sample questions that you can ask your physician:

Questions during Your First Visit

• Does my medical condition have a name?
• Is my heart condition a result of my bad lifestyle choices or is it genetic?
• How severe is my heart disease?
• Is my heart condition curable?
• What type of complications am I going to experience?
• Will any diet or workout changes help improve my condition?
• Is it safe for me to perform my usual workout routine?
• What symptoms should signal that I need to call an ambulance?
• Can medication help in controlling my heart condition?
• Where can I find more information regarding my illness in Singapore?
• When is the best time to schedule my next appointment?

Questions If You’re Prescribed with a Heart Medication

• Does my medication have any potential side effects?
• What should I do if experience any severe side effects?
• Is it completely safe to take any over-the-counter drugs while I’m taking this medication?
• Can I take this medication with my other prescribed medications?
• If the medication failed to control my heart condition, what would be the next step of treatment?

Questions to Ask If Cardiologist Recommends Heart Procedure

• What kind of heart procedure will I have?
• Where will the procedure be performed?
• Who will be in-charge in performing it?
• How soon will I need the heart procedure?
• Is it alright to get a second opinion regarding the procedure?
• How should I prepare for the procedure?
• Will I need to stay in the hospital after the procedure?
• How long does it usually take to recover from the procedure?
• What’s the expected outcome of this heart procedure?
• What kind of follow-up procedures will be necessary after it?
• Are there any risks if I decide not to have a particular heart procedure?

Other than hiring a skilled cardiologist, it’s also important on your part to prepare and know about your heart condition beforehand. By doing this, you can guarantee that you’ll get the best heart healthcare possible.


The Functions of the Right Brain  

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The brain is small yet powerful. It can take us to places and it can create many things. Many people believe that the brain is only capable for making logical deductions. The brain is more than that because it is also capable of feeling and sentiments.


Roger Sperry, a Professor from the University of California revealed on his study that there are different sides of the brain. There are two sides of the brain which are responsible for various functions – left-brain and right brain. The left-brain is capable of governing the right side of the body and is capable of logical thinking.

Many Singaporeans think that the left-brain is everything because it is capable of critical or logical thinking. The right brain is equally important too. We have to know that the right brain is responsible for feeling. The professor said that the right brain administrates the left side of the body and the left field of vision.


It does not end there because the right brain is also accountable for imagination and visualization. The imagination and visualization are crucial here in Singapore – they are the beginning of inventions and creations. The right brain is also the throne of kinaesthetic perception and intuitive not to mention it expresses metaphor and symbol.

Experts say that both sides of the brain should be well-developed. No one should be greater than the other. There are plenty of ways on how to develop both sides of the brain, all we need is to be open about it and willing. To know the ways, we can consult doctors.


Effective Ways to FIGHT Illness  

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Even here in Singapore, you cannot help but succumb to illness sometimes. Illness is present and it is only a matter of time that you can spread. The best way to fight illness is through good hygiene. Good hygiene is important because it averts the spread of diseases.


You have to remember that good hygiene should not only be observed at home, it should also be in public areas too. You should be conscientious when it comes to your own health and those around you. Singapore’s Health Promotion Board advises you to be responsible of your health. The organization thereby introduced F.I.G.H.T.

Here’s a closer look:

  • F: F stands for frequent washing of hands with the use of water and soap. This is to keep the germs away. You can also employ the use of hand sanitizer.
  • I: Immunization is another tool to keep the illness at bay. Immunizations are effective in protecting you against infectious diseases. Immunizations are particularly imperative for persons aged sixty five and above, babies, young children and individuals with medical conditions.


  • G: G stands for going to the doctor as soon as you feel unwell. Ignoring it will only make matters worse.
  • H: Home rest is important if you get sick or feel unwell. If you pressure your body to continue your activities, you just spread the disease.
  • T: T stands for tissues and masks. You will cough or sneeze so you need tissues or masks. If you do not cover your nose and mouth, you will spread the disease. The worse thing that you can do is to hold your nose and mouth.

Now that you know how to FIGHT illnesses, you will surely recover easily and prevent its spread.